Journal of Roy C. Hilton, Journal Entries, Charts and Other Thoughts, 1941-1944

Title

Journal of Roy C. Hilton, Journal Entries, Charts and Other Thoughts, 1941-1944

Description

This journal is composed of different entries written by Hilton about events occurring from 1941-1945 and tied together with string. They include diary entries from December 25, 1942-April 1943, Hilton's health chart from November 1941-July 1945, summary of foreign service from 1941-1943, information about purchasing movie cameras, guns, and golf clubs, news reports, travel information for the Grand Canyon and Yellowstone National Parks, etc. Some of these entries are incomplete.

Source

A2010.26

Publisher

The Citadel Archives & Museum

Rights

Materials in The Citadel Archives & Museum Digital Collections are intended for educational and research use. The user assumes all responsibility for identifying and satisfying any claimants of copyright. For more information contact The Citadel Archives & Museum, The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, 29409.

Relation

Roy C. Hilton Collection

Format

application/pdf

Language

English

Type

Text

Identifier

https://citadeldigitalarchives.omeka.net/items/show/837

Date Valid

Text

[Page 1]
[See chart on original document.]

[Page 2]
[See calendar on original document.]

[Page 3]
[See calendar on original document.]

[Page 4]
12/25/42 Christmas Day, 1942 (See 12/25/42) Note Book No. 1.) 7.

A beautiful sunshiny day. Christmas carols sung last night by our choir while marching around and through barracks. Christmas services at 10:00 A.M. followed by more Christmas carols. Services conducted by Lt. Gen. Percival. Everyone is in high morale today from better food for today and favorable war rumors. Some new rumors were brought by the four new arrivals of 12/23. (Gen. Stevens, Col. Horan, Col. Mitchell, Col. Tarkington (& two enlisted men). I read a chapter of the bible (Judges I), and played & won a rummy game - our sweepstakes game - this afternoon. Food for today including xmas additions were:
Breakfast: one teacup of rice; one bowl (2 teacups) of vegetable soup. Soup consists of leafy vegetables mixed with tubers - turnips, etc. This is our usual three times a day meal: (no meat or [illegible])
Dinner: Rice with pork mixed in, pork & vegetable soup (mixed), one roll of bread - about ⅕ loaf; and the first bread since Aug. 17, 1942. Col. Hirsch added a piece of margarine (butter);
Issued separately: 2 ⅓ bananas, 1 orange, ½ pound raw shelled peanuts, 1 potato cake (sweet);
Supper: Rice with some duck meat mixed in (5 ducks); duck & vegetable soup (mixed);

(over)

[Written on the side of page 4]
Meat for 12/25/42:
44 lbs. of pork
30 ducks
Personnel fed: 326.

[Page 5]
4.
This was by far our best day of meals since captivity.

I’m feeling fine but have some swelling in my legs from unbalanced diet - lack proteins. I weigh about 133 pounds - about twenty (20) pounds below my normal weight.

Col. Garfunkel made a small Christmas tree for our table - in our room. I decorated our doors by painting a holly wreath and decorations on the glass panes in our two doors with red glaze pencil.

We have plenty of cigarettes (Japanese). , and I have about 15 Japanese cigars which I break up for pipe tobacco. Cigars are too scarce to smoke as cigars. Japanese cigars have shredded tobacco on interior and smoke rapidly. I also have about ½ pound of cube sugar and plenty of tea. I use sugar to sweeten water to pour on last portion of my rice at meals - to make the one pound we get each month last through the month.

Our courage is still here and we look confidently to better times before next Christmas. R.C.H.

[Page 6]
12/31/42. New Year’s Eve. (See 12/31/42, Note Book No. 1) 9.

A cloudy, windy, chilly day.

This is the end of 1942, I’m glad to say. It has been the most unpleasant, unprofitable and unsatisfactory year of my fifty years of life. Eight and one-half months have been wasted in a Japanese prison camp - or in three prison camps. I wish I could wake up and find it all to be an ugly dream. Haven’t had a word from my family since Dec. 21, 1941. This is my greatest desire and anxiety.

We cleaned up house today in preparation for New Year - instead of the usual Saturday morning clean-up (this is Thursday). We are promised good meals for tomorrow since the Nipponese also celebrate New Year’s Day. Food is our great interest here, also, to add to our three-times-daily rice and vegetable soup meals.

I’m feeling pretty good today. Weigh about 133 pounds - about eight more pounds than on date of surrender (4/9/42).

Time is beginning to be monotonous but our morale is good

[Page 7]
26
because of the outlook for bright prospects for 1943.

Reports of N. Africa campaign sound encouraging. Russia is still going strong. The U.S. should be well on its way for big operations for 1943. Some rumors regarding possible exchange of prisoners of war are again circulating.

Went to a Victrola concert tonight given by Brigadier Harrison. Heard popular music, including Hawaiian melodies, “Susa’s Stars & Stripes Forever,” “Hands across the Ocean”, King Cotton, & Sweet Danube. Seemed fine to hear these again. Had good soup tonight with vegetable oil and the usual rice portion (about one tea-cup full. Promised pork soup tomorrow.

[Page 8]
11
January 1, 1943. New Years Day

A bright sunny comfortable day again for which we are thankful. May the whole year be bright.

Called on Gen. Wainwright and Gen. King with Floyd Marshall. We also called on these two officers on Christmas Day. Had rice dumplings in soup this morning. Was better.

Whatever this year brings forth, it promises to be better than results of last year.

My chief desire is word from my family - Bless their hearts. I long to hear from Ruth, Little Ruth and Laura Anne. I hope they have received my radio message of about 11/25/42.

Had better soup - some pork flavor - for noon and evening meals. One potato cake was issued us, also. The American & British prisoners gave an intertainment [sic] - Room 25 & 26 - at 7:00 PM tonight - also night of 12/26. Simulated broadcast & song, dance & recitations. Was good for a diversion.

I’m making a walking cane to help pass the time.

[Page 9]
13.
January 31, 1943.

One month of this year passed satisfactorily (under the circumstances). We worked our new garden, about 4 acres, grubbing nut grass, bushes, bermuda grass, and spading and carrying away grass and rocks during this month. Worked with hoes, shovels, forks and hands - about three 30-minute periods during A.M. and P.M. for about five days each week. Garden is layed [sic] off and ready for planting - supposedly in sweet potatoes. Squad & individual gardens were planted during Dec. and January and are growing nicely and producing tomatoes, turnips, greens, etc.

Weather mostly cloudy and cool with warm sunshiny days in between. Temp. as low as 50° for a few days at a time; mostly around 65°-80°.

Curfew since Aug. 17 (or rather May 10th) has been at 7:00 P.M. We are in bed by 9:00 P.M. since Nov. 1st and up at 6:30 A.M.; prior to Nov. 1st sleeping hours were 9:30 P.M. to 6:00 A.M.

War news is scarce but Russia and our N. Africa forces seem to be doing well and are in position for doing better and bigger things.

Our morale improved with entry of 1943.

My health is good, but have no reserve strength or indurance [sic]. Am about exhausted when I reach work area. (See health chart).

[Page 10]
[See supply chart on original document.]

[Page 11]
15
Feb. 1943.

A cool damp unpleasant month with spells of cold weather (to 47°) and of a few warm sunshiny days (ie 2/22). Unpleasant for personel [sic] in our phys. cond. Much rgn. of [illegible words] by new [illegible words]. Planted beans in our 4 acre garden & prepared balance for planting.

March, 1943. 1st-15th Cloudy, cool and damp: Temperature 68°-74°

16th-20th. Alternate sunshine and cloudy: Temperature 70°-76°

Gardens planted and growing throughout winter months.

3/21 - First day of spring. A balmy but cloudy day, somewhat cool. Rumor regarding Red Cross supplies to be delivered. Relief of Camp Commander & farewell speech by him and his successor - Lt. Herjema. Following Red Cross supplies arrived here on 3/24 (awaiting word from Tokio [sic] for distribution):

1456 lbs cocoa (Ea for Karenko PW (398)) 3.6 lb per person; 10,268 lbs canned beef - 136 cans ea.; meat & vegs. 5908 lbs - 14.6 lbs ea; Sugar 16,500 lbs - 41.6 lbs. ea; salt, 3000 lbs. - 8 lbs ea.; 1722 Ind. Pkgs containing 15 items foods, chocolate etc - 4.1 pkgs ea; Boots, 1179 pr - 3 pr. ea; Two cases medical supplies. (See page 14)

3/31/43 - Last day of March. Cloudy and chilly. Used 4 blankets last night. Last half of March mixed balmy sunshine and cool and damp days. Today about 65°-68°. Inspector for Taiwan camps here today. Still no distr. of R.C. supplies - a form of [illegible].

4/9. Begin 2nd year of captivity today. So far April has been cloudy and cold to cold & rainy. Today is a beautiful sunshiny spring day. Did a week’s laundry this A.M. - special check of personnel ¾ hr. earlier this A.M. This has been a melancholy and wasted year in my life. No outside news since 3/10/43 & no news from home since Christmas message of 1941. Anxious about my family. 4/30 - April from 4/9-4/30 - cloudy to fair and cool. Mostly cloudy and damp. Two blankets at night.

[Page 12]
[See chart on original document.]

[Page 13]
[See health chart on original document.]

[Page 14]
[See health chart on original document.]

[Page 15]
[See health chart on original document.]

[Page 16]
[See health chart on original document.]

[Page 17]
[See health chart on original document.]

[Page 18]
71
Movie Camera

Mallonee (Col.) 12 yrs experience with 8 mm & 16 mm Eastman
Maher (Col.) 2 yrs experience with Bell-Howell, 16 mm ($165.00)
Daugherty (Col.) 4 yrs experience with Eastman, 16 mm ($65.00) P.X. 87.00 approx Beebe, Louis (B. G. Temp) 9 yrs experience with Eastman, 16 mm

Bell Howell is camera used by movie concerned.

All above officers recommend 16 mm camera as most satisfactory. Clearer - longer range, larger & clearer on screen. Similar to Buick vs. Ford (16 vs 8)

Mallonee recommends Eastman camera & Bell Howell projector. [Written on side of page] Beebe recommends against B.H. projector; says it cuts up film. Also, he recommends buying camera only to start with - and add to equipment as desired. Camera, projector & screen (3’ x 5’, approx) needed. Projector etc can be rented for use. 16 mm vs 8 mm operation price is about film relative prices (ordinary - black & white - 16 mm $6.00 & $7.00 & 8mm $3.00 & $3.75)

Other equipment which may be desired later includes:

Lens.
1. Telephoto (Telescope)
2. Films (black & white-color-kodachrome)
3. Light meter
4. Filter
5. View finder, to review film
6. Splicer, to splice film
7. Hand-book, for amatures [sic]

[Page 19]
40.
Bell-Howell Camera is more expensive. Eastman is quite satisfactory.

Mallonee recommends as a starter the 3.5 Lens (?) (See Beebe, below); The 1.9 is more expensive and a better lens for better work - 1.9 is best. He also recommends investigating the sound feature. Films can be taken out and others substituted as desired, then the original films may be replaced in camera for continuous photos.

Lenses are expensive & important. Buy lens appropriate to purpose of photo - experience in operation - etc. 3.5 Lens is all-purpose & cheapest lens to be desired.

8mm camera is satisfactory for close photography & for showing to small groups in room of residence. Not satisfactory for football games, parades, horse races, etc.

* Brig Gen. Lewis Beebe recommends (9 yrs. experience) Eastman 16mm, Eastman projector, 1.9 lens to start with (better equip), 3x5 (approx) screen. May need later 3” photoscopic lens, light meter, splicer. He uses photocrome (colored) film. Get magazine camera. He does not use filter, but filter brings out coloring. He can get me 25% discount.

[Page 20]
73
Movie Camera (Cont’d from P. 40)

Mallonee says advantage of Bell-Howell projector, over Eastman Projector, is that it has a 1000 watt bulb where E. has a 750 watt; it can be stopped on any scene & can be moved backward if desired; it is gear driven while E. is spring belt driven. He has never had trouble of breaking up films with his B.H. projector. He recommends on [sic] of not less than $80.00. He says also that viewer is not necessary with B.H. projector - except perhaps an inexpensive ($2.00-2.50) one. He says “N.Y. Times” advertises good but some obsolete on used accessories of a big movie machine house in N.Y. He does not have a viewer except a $2.50 one. Same applies to splicer.

From above, the following seems most expedient for my use in the order mentioned:

I. Camera: 16mm Eastman with 1.9 lens (write Beebe for 25% discount)
Film: one reel (100 ft) of black & white; one reel of photochrome

II. Projector: Eastman, or B-Howell.
Screen: 3x5 (approx)

III. Filter
Viewer: splicer (inexpensive type)

IV. Lens: Photo-scopic (for more distance).

XX For regular still camera, get 3.5 Lens in small or medium size (2 ½ x 3 ½ approx), or less for photo.

[Page 21]
Shot Gun - For my all-purpose use.

1. “Parker” 12 gauge (12) with 28” barrell - one choke, one modified. L.C. Smith
Ithaca (write Ithaca Factory for special price to Army.

2. Investigate: Pump gun, 12 gauge with multiple poly choke attachment.

(a) Savage - Remington - Browning - Winchester.

(b) Col. K. L. Berry (for pump gun) recommends: Ithaca Poly Choke, 28-29 (overall) barrel, 12 gauge, Featherweight (about $60.00) (Disc’t to 52.00). Write Ithaca factory for special price for Army officers (N.Y.) (Remington or Winchester, O.K.)

Golf Clubs - for my use.

Matched set of wooden clubs (3)
Matched set of iron clubs: (Putter, #2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, & #9. (9)
Bag: cowhide leather

Watch - Pocket, or wrist - Hamilton, Elgin or Watham.
Col. Hirsch got World War 21 Jewel Hamilton watch from D.C. Commissary for $20.00 in 1919. Write to Chief of [illegible] - Ch. of Sig. Corps., & Ch. of Ord.

Knife, pocket: same depots as for watches; especially Signal Corps & Q.M.

[Written on side of Page 21]
Dudley Watch Co., Lancaster Pa. (across st. fr. Hamilton Watch Co)
For presentation watches [illegible] works (glass chrystal in back of case; masonic & fraternity designs (Hamilton class watches)

[Page 22]
77.
Summary of Foreign Service 1941-42-43.
(From Diary lost at surrender of Corregidor)

Lt. Col. Roy C. Hilton, Inf. 0-5554.

Left Charleston, S.C. - from R.O.T.C. duty at The Citadel - on Oct. 26, 1941 via Ry (Atlanta, New Orleans, San Antonio, El Paso, & Los Angeles to San Frisco, Cal; thence on Nov. 1, 1941, via President Liner - “The Coolidge - for Manila, P.I.) Arrived San Francisco on Oct. 30, 1941 and left on Nov. 1, 1941; arrived Honolulu on Nov. 6, 1941 & left same date; arrived Manila on Nov 20, 1941 (Thanksgiving Day). Received orders - along with about 50 other officers to station at Ft. McKinley, to await assignment orders. Assigned to Hq. Phil. Dept. (Temp.)

Ordered to report to G-2 (Col. Willoughby) USA77E, for interview on Dec. 6, 1941 - after most other officers had left Ft. McKinley to report to the N. Luzon Force, S. Luzon Force and [illegible words] Force. Reported for duty as asst. G-2, USA77E on Dec. 15, 1941 and assigned as Actg. G-2 - Philippine Dept. G-2 office located at Ft. Santiago in Manila. War declared on Dec. 8, 1941. Moved office of G-2 from Ft. Santiago to

[Page 23]
78
new Treasury Building about Dec. 20, 1941 (Just in rear of 1146 Gran Luna St., where I lived (on account of congestion at Ft. Santiago and possible enemy aerial bombing - our air fields, etc. had been bombed since Dec. 10, 1941. Left Manila with Hq. Phil. Dept. on afternoon (6:00 P.M. of Dec. 24, 1941, leaving a cooked turkey dinner, less one meal of it, at our quarters at 1146 Gran Luna); arrived Corregidor about 9:30 P.M. about 30 minutes ahead of Gen. McArthur and Hq. USA77E. ‘Twas a spectacular but sad sight while leaving Manila - gasoline dumps were being destroyed by fire and many demolitions being made. Went to hospital in Malinta Tunnel with malaria on morning of Dec. 26, 1941. Left hospital on Jan 5, 1942, after excellent treatment. Assigned as asst. G-4, USA77E (asst. to Louis Beebe) on Jan. 5, 1942. Returned to hospital on Jan. 5th & remained until Jan. 15, 1942 - account of physical weakness. On half rations from Jan. 6, 1942. Asst G-4 USA77E (Corregidor) until Feb. 14, 1942, at which time I was assigned as G-4 Luzon Force on Bataan. Reported on Bataan 2/14/42. (See Note Book No. 1, for promotion on 3/31/42 and assignment to G.S.C. - surrendered with Bataan Force. (Note Book No. 1)

[Page 24]
79.
Summary of Foreign Service, 1941-42-43, (Cont’d.)

Lived at 1146 Gran Luna St. Manila with Lt. Cols. Hardee, Wilson and Steel from about Dec. 17-24, 1941 (Quarters assgd. to C.O. 31st Inf.). Lived in officer’s club at Ft. McKinley, during bombing around Luzon, and in the Hostess House there prior to outbreak of war.

While serving as asst. G-4, USA77E at Corregidor in Tunnel No 3. (Malinta Tunnel), Gen. MacArthur and Mrs. MacArthur and Little Arthur McA. (4 yrs old) would eat lunch with us (his staff).

I was in Tunnel hospital (with malaria) when the first heavy bombing (Dec. 29th 1941) took place. I went up to “Top Side” a few weeks later to see the wreckage done.

While in Bataan - Hq. Luzon Force - I lived on S.E. slope of Mt. Marivelles, a family of wild monkeys lived in trees over our improvised tents and houses. Had a bad case of diarrhea about Feb. 16-25th just after recovering from effects of malaria and went down in weight to about 125 pounds - this was also while we were on ½ ration. Gen. King’s decision to surrender was made on afternoon of April 8th. Only about 3-days of ½ rations remained for us at that time.

[Page 25]
81
Summary of Foreign Service 1941-42-43 (Cont’d).

Prisoner of War at Camp O’Donnel near Tarlac, P.I. - 4/11/42-5/10/42.
Prisoner of War at Tarlac P.I. - Phillipine Army Bks - 5/10/42-8/11/42
Prisoner of War at Karenko, Taiwan (Formosa) Army Post Bks. - 8/17/42-6/7/43.
Prisoner of War at Shira Kawa (White River) on S.W. Taiwan 6/8/43 -
Prisoner of War at Beppu-Kyushu, Japan about Oct. 28, 1944-Nov. 8, 1944
Prisoner of War at Chin-Chia-Tun, Manchuria - Nov. 14, 1944-May 21, 1945
Prisoner of War at Mukden, Manchuria, May 22, 1945 - Aug. 20, 1945
(W.D. citation of all troops in P.I. - G.O. #14, W.D., 1942.)

[Page 26]
82.
I issued orders - for Gen. King - for the Phil. ordnance Depot to be blown up - at about 11:00 PM on night of April 8th. First explosion - a terrific one of aerial bombs went of [sic] at 2:25 A.M. of April 9th. From that time until we left this area at 6:00 P.M. April 10th, explosions of small arms ammunition and occasion shells in the warehouses were still in progress.

We were heavily bombed by enemy bombers on Bataan from about April 3rd - beginning of his final attack - until the morning of April 9th, incl.

Capt Ochai, Japanese Tank Commander (of one tank co.) came and took charge of the officers of Hq. Luzon Force after our surrender, arriving at our headquarters about 6:00 P.M. April 9th.

We received quite a fright while leaving for Camp O’Donnell about 6:30 P.M. on April 10th. Some of the Japanese looters (probably M.P.’s demanded that we stop our car - or rather, they stopped it - and demanded that we get out and go by the roadside in the brush. We thought they were about to rob us of everything we had left. A Japanese officer arrived and stopped this.

[Page 27]
83
Exhorbitan [sic] Prices paid for food stuffs - O’Donnel.

& en route to O’Donnel - about same in Bataan (March & April, 1942.)

American Cigarettes: ea $0.25; $5.00 for 1-pkg (Doone); $200 for one carton of Chesterfield (monthly)($100.00); 12 cartons Piedmonts for 600.00 ($300.00). Also 5 pesos for each package ($2.50):
Coconut candy (Philippine), 5 pesos ($2.50) - regular $0.10 price
Tuna fish 5-pesos ($2.50), about $0.25 size. Sardines @ 5-pesos ($2.50), about $0.50 size Can milk @ 7.50 pesos ($3.75), $0.12 can
Bar of Philippine soap at Taiwan, one box of cigars 7.00¥ (about $0.15 size)
Taxi service in Bataan, 5 & 10 pesos ($2.50 & $5.00) about $0.25 ride.
Valuable, gift watch for 6 cans of Amer. food Doane offered D.B. Hilton $50.00 gold for air mattress (value $10.00); refused.
2/10/43 D.B.H. - offered me 40.00 for my supper soup (meat & veg) & rice - refused.
300 pesos ($150.00) for one (1) carton cigarettes - Judge Lynch reported; also 10.00 pesos per pkg.
150 pesos (75.00) for one (1) carton cigarettes - Phil. Fry reported
$20.00 for one pkg (box) Kelloggs cornflakes; 10.00 pesos ($5.00) for three (3) cakes of .05¢ sugar paid by Col. Keltner.

(over)

[Page 28]
84 (cont’d. from page 83)

June 6, 1943.
Col. P.T. Fry paid me (my I-O-U for) $50.00 for my week’s issue of the Red Cross supplies consisting of: two (2) cans corned beef (1-of 12 oz. & 1 of 8 oz); 1-lb sugar; ½ lb salt. (Total value about $0.65)

6/13/43 - Col. D.B. Hilton paid me $100.00 (took up bridge debt for $100.00) for my share in individual packages of R/C supplies consisting of (about ⅔ of one package): money value about $2.25, see pages 14 & 16

6/23/43. Phil Fry offered an E.M. $50.00 for seven (7) cans of 12 oz corned beef

6/23/43 Col. Richards bought Col. Quinns Individ. R/C pkg (about $3.00 value for ¾ pkg) paying $125.00

7/10/43. Col. Phil. Fry offered 20.00 pesos ($10.00) for two lbs. (2#) of sugar. Not accepted

[Page 29]
85
Distorted ideas and situations - result of reduced mentality

“SNAFFU”

Officers disagree on all matters arising. Serious arguments over trivial matters, especially food distribution. Arguments over distribution of small purchased P.X. articles - cigarette holders, etc. Shortage of cigarettes about Nov. 20th.

1/2/43. Official Nipponese orders to stay away from pig food (bran of rice) stating that this bran was unfit for human consumption.

1/3/43. Cattle farm housing nearing completion: 20 pigs; 22 goats (already here); about 50 chickens and rabbits due here. About ¥7000.00 collected for these cattle and their food and housing.

Officers engaged in pick & shovel garden work under N. guards.

Officers sewing garments, shoes, pajamas, coats, hats, socks, bath robes, etc.

Officers making pipes, cigarette holders, coat hangars, etc.

Shortage of all needed items, e.g. pins, thread, needles, knives, strings, pieces of wood & metals, shoe strings, underwear, shoes.

N. - locking up of shoes at night; bayoneted guards; Latrine guard of officers to check visits to latrine.

[Written on side of page 29]
6/23/43 Comedy - or tragedy - of dividing contents of 3 Ind. R/C pkgs among 4 officers, ie. ¼ lb bar of chocolate; 1-doz (can) of broken crackers - peaced [sic] together & [illegible] dice for choice.

[Page 30]
86 Cont’d. From Page 33.

Our E.M., being forced to work along with high ranking officers and having been rapidly promoted after short service, have lost what courtesy and respect they may have had for officers under these abnormal conditions. Officers without authority to enforce discipline and their abnormal actions under P.W. enforced regulations are responsible for this lack of deference on part of Enl. Men. The British E.M. who were brought here as orderlies - as ours were, show greater courtesy and respect than do our E.M. for both British and American officers.

We have a daily ceremony - at reveille - of bowing to the N. - Imperial Palace & Emperor. We use N- military commands, including counting off. All officers are off in weight from 70 to 20 pounds. Our food these days has been estimated at 1500 calories: 14 ozs. of rice or total of about two (2) pounds of food daily with vegetables in soup composing other part. 1500 calories seems an over estimate considering thin appearance of personnel.

1/24/43. Still some (many) officers dissatisfied with food distribution within squads. We eat last grain of rice. Fusses over small things - including not passing on rumors (Doane)

[Page 31]
91.
“The Ragged Edge of Humanity.” (“Human Nature at Ebb-Tide”).
(Bataan) & (P.W.)

Half starvation of body, mind and soul produces some queer quirks of nature. The veneer of civilization disappears and humanity approaches - diminishes - to near the animal stage. A panicky condition exists for fear of chances of existence of the individual. “T’was the straw that broke the camel’s back”, therefore the bit of food, however small, might be the one to save life. Little things of ordinary existence become big things of starvation existence.

The mind and outlook on life are distorted. Reason diminishes, or disappears and the other person’s side of things appears unreasonable. The only way to do a thing, ie. - to distribute food equally - is one’s own way.

[Written on side of page 31]
Power to concentrate, - e.g. bridge game - does not exist. “What are trumps”, Where did I take that trick”, “Whose deal is it” etc is constantly repeated in a bridge game.

Time weighs heavily on one. This is aggregated by lack of news from ones family (in our status) and worry over the family and home-folks. Daily physical labor (in our status) keeps mind and body at this low stage.

Three Major Gens. & one Colonel supervised distribution of rice and vegetable soup - meal on one day. No one is satisfied to trust another with such an important undertaking. Food has to be religiously watched to preserve the small issues for distr. to all. Our daily food issue has been estimated at from 1000 to 1500 calories per day (about 1000 calories are required for a bed patient to exist. Conferences are held by high ranking officers on food distr. Constant hunger.

[Page 32]
40.
(Cont’d from page 39)

At Camp O’ Donnell about 45,000 Phil. troops & 9000 Amer were separately located. Water & food; clothing & items of equip. of all kinds were lacking. Medical supplies

Malaria & dysentery existed; sanitation at a sad state, latrines & troops congested, a panicky attitude existed among med. personnel (about 50 Drs & 150 EM). Amer. sick ran as high as 28 per day & Phil. at nearly 100 per day {Totals in 3-4 months 1200 & 10,000 Totals in 7 months 4000 & 20,000} Estimates & hearsay from camp. Med. personnel seemed to fear contact with sick & suffering patients.

Exhaustion, sickness, half starvation existed.

With increase of food after about 4 months, and addition of reading matter at that time, morale was considerably raised. Another increase of these items after 8-9 months still improved conditions.

Meats, fats, proteins & lack of quantity were lacking for 1st 8 mos. Legs were swollen, phys. & mental weaknesses existed; bruises would not heal.

Some went over the edge, so we knew we were at the edge.

All such personnel are irritable and get into unnecessary arguments very easily. Nothing, or no statements, seem to be agreeable to many of any one group. Conversations on all subjects are very prolific. Anyone is liable to take up your subject and know much more about it than you do.

Personnel also at times appear very generous, kind and polite. Jap. requirements re - saluting & discipline - rigid.

[Page 33]
93
Rumors and Their Origin

Rumors - Rumors - Rumors

90-99% false but spread like fire - and greatly exaggerated.

2/15/43
E.g. Col. Fry: “You can forget about meat for the rest of the month”. Repeated by Col. MacDonald - 8 away: “You say we get meat for the rest of the month.” 2/22/43 Col Garfinkel: “Well, I understand that rice is not to be decreased tonight because sweet potatoes are being added.” Repeated by Col MacDonald - 10 away: “You say rice is to be decreased tonight”. Dates of happenings of events - events themselves - numbers involved in rumors, etc. always changed and sometimes reversed on repetition.

2/27/43 - [illegible words] Marching to garden on sunshiny morning: “I think brighter things are in the offing.” Keltner - 5 ft. away - “You say papers (news) are in today.”

2/26 - Brig. Harrison after general sentry bopping in concert room. “And that concludes the program for tonight, gentleman” - (also, just at conclusion of a Victrola record - about 7:50 PM).

3/20/43 - Within 4 or 5 days we will hear best news so far.

3/22 - Red Cross supplies arrived.

4/29/43 - Rumor that F. Marshall Romell is well bottled up in Tunisia. No papers since 4/7/43.

5/1/43 - Rumor that all P.W.’s over 60 yrs of age & chronic malaria cases are to be repatriated.

6/10-6/20/43. Rumor that small groups of American T.B.’s to arrive at our new camp (S.W. Taiwan) and then all Amers. to leave??

7/10/43. Rumor again that Americans will leave P.W. camp about 8/21/43 & be home by Christmas, 1943 (from remarks by “Boggy Pants”).

7/19/43 Rumor that four (4) Anti-Axis Divisions landed in Italy a few days ago.

7/30/43 - Rumor that Russian drive is progressing allied offensive vs Italy - Italy weakening.

(over)

[Page 34]
1943

8/12 - Rumor re-landing in Italy sifted down to several Br. & Amer. landings on southern coast of Sicily & that southern half of Sicily in our control.

8/17 - Rumor re-Russian landing of 100,000 trs. In Norway under protection allied Navies.

8/19 - Rumor re-Russian landing at Koenigsburg - E. Prussia and re- Br. & Amer landings on European continent at two points (1- at Emden (G) & 1 in Holland -; also in Denmark)

Rumor re- better & more vegetables under new contract effective on Sept. 1, 1943.

8/21 - Rumor re- 160,000 prisoners taken by Allies in Sicily {Italian Army & 3-General Divs.} Re-uprising in Jugo-slavia [sic] by 4 of their divisions vs. axis
Re-[illegible] of Italy & surrender of Italian Navy to U.S. forces (On 9/8/43)
Re-fighting at Breuner Pass (N. Italy)
Re-Nip punishment for non-work - 40 days on one bowl of rice per day

8/23 - Re Turks opening Dardanelles and allied fleet entering Black Sea Re 191 PW (Amers) leaving here soon. Denied by Nip Intr. - first rumor to be denied.

8/25 - R. repeated presumably by 2-N. Gds. re-Amers. Lvg here.; Re- German request for armistice

8/28 - Re Nips soon fighting Amer., England & Russia alone.

8/30 - Germans have withdrawn to line through Warsaw.

[Page 35]
Distorted ideas - Queer situations, occupations, etc (cont’d).

7/8/43. I’m making a folding stool to sit on - only benches w/o backs in our rooms. Don Hilton is making a sun hat from a hat frame (Chinese) that he found here. Quintard made some trousers from sheeting to wear under his shorts (Nip. burlap issue) to keep of mosquitos. Our collection of tin cans, pieces of wood, wire, cloth, etc. would put “Grapes of Wrath” characters to shame.

Lt. Gens. - Maj.: [illegible words] of Singapore, Hong Kong, Dutch East Indies - doing own laundry and feeding a goat herd.
Col. Garfinkel making a pair of pajamas (pants) from O.D. blanket {Winter 1942}
Col. Fortier and others making a jacket for winter of 1942
Making tools for use - from scraps of wood and iron.
I made a knife from bamboo - Don Hilton made one from a metal mirror.

All P.W.’s wearing wooden clogs daily. Leather shoes must be turned in and locked up each night.

All P.W.’s, at times, saving cigarette & cigar “butts” for tobacco.

No P.W. ever leaves anything from meals.

{about 10/20/43. One P.W. to room-mate, indoors: “I hear the rations are being increased” a passerby P.W. to his companion, after mishearing above: “Hey! The Russians are in Greece”.

[Page 36]
Rumors, (cont’d)

10/2/43. Rumor that Italy has joined Allies in war vs. Germany & that European war was over one week ago (about 9/25/43). {Italy out Sept. 8, 1943}

10/9/43 Rumor re- Tojo cabinet has been asked (by Emperor) to resign.

10/11-10/12 Rumor re- Russia’s demands upon Japan.

10/13/43 - Rumor re- Amer. & Br. landings in France.

10/30/43 - Rumor re- Russia & Turkey advances to Bucharest (Bulgaria) & to Czechslovakia [sic]; of Germany’s withdrawal from France; of Allies occupying Rome

11/11/43. Int. - Report Rumor} re - 4-day naval battle N. of New Guinea: Amers. lost 2-battleships 21-cruisers & many transports

{About 10/20 - “Ways of Rumors”. One P.W. “I hear the rations are being increased:” outside P.W. possibly to his companion - after mishearing above remark: “Hey! The Russians are in Greece

11/17/43. Rumor re- Italy entirely occupied by Allies; Allied landing at Bordeau

11/18 - Re- Allied landing - by 7th Amer. Army - in Albania; re- Amer. advancing & heavy fighting in S.W. Pacific and Nip. withdrawal; re- Germany & Japan will be at peace with Allies soon.

12/8 - Re- Russian occupation of Lemburg; 12/13 - Re- Allied controlling Burma (all).

12/26-12/28/43 - Re- Nip withdrawal from Burma, Java, - Germany asking for peace terms.

6/19/44 Re- Germany weakening - to last about 1-more month; Br landing (5-Divs) in Sumatra Re- 2nd Front established in Europe; re- bombing of Japan & Singapore

7/16/44 - Re Tojo out of Nip. cabinet. MacArthur’s [illegible words]

9/15/44 - Hokaido (N. Is. of Japan) occupied by Amer. Troops. 9/26 - Hitler dead. (dead)

[Page 37]
95
Mental Gymnastics - Mathematics

1. Five sailors were stranded on an isolated island. The only food was coconuts. They gathered up all of the coconuts the first day and put them in a pile to divide equally the next day. During that night each of the five in turn went to the pile and took for himself one-fifth of them - but each in turn had to throw away one coconut to make the number therein divisible by five. The next morning - after each one of the five had thrown one coconut away, and hidden his ⅕ of the pile - they were able to divide the remainder equally. Question: How many coconuts did they gather, and how many remained the next morning?

2. A man went to a bank and cashed a check. The cashier made a mistake and paid out in dollars what the check called for in cents - and paid in cents what the check called for in dollars. The next day the man who cashed the check after spending $3.50 discovered that he still had twice the amount called for by the check. Question: What was the value of the check?

[Page 38]
[See chart on original document.]

[Page 39]
1.
Karenko, Taiwan
April 5, 1943

Luzon Force, (Bataan Province, P.I.)

Informal G-4 Report
For the Period March 12-April 8, 1942

Note. Since no records are available for rendition of this report, and since many officers who were responsible for details of supply are not available, this report is made from reports of available chief of supply services here at Karenko and from the best of my knowledge and recollection of the supply situation.

I first went to Bataan on Feb. 14, 1942, to represent G-4 section with the advanced headquarters

[Page 40]
2.
of USAFFE - relieving Lt. Col. Nicoll F. Galbraith on this date. I was officially assigned to duty with the Luzon Force (Bataan) upon the organization of the Luzon Force about March 12, 1942, and was assigned as G-4 of the Luzon Force on March 20, 1942.

I. General Supply Situation Upon my arrival on Bataan, and for the period covered by this report, the administrative order covering administrative details was in operation for use of the Luzon Force which was then occupying the Reserve Battle Position (Pilar-[illegible] Road). Prior to March 20th certain supplies had been found to be critically inadequate. All troops on Bataan were operating on

[Page 41]
3
one-half ration since about Jan. 6, 1942, - and further reductions were to follow.

Forage for animals was about exhausted.

Gasoline and lubricants for motor vehicles were inadequate in appropriate grades and gasoline had been placed on a command control basis. Daily issues of gasoline for motor vehicles was to be further reduced.

The operation of G-4 section on Bataan for the period covered by this report therefore was more on the nature of rationing inadequate supplies than that of its normal function of securing, storing, issuing, etc., supplies.

[Page 42]
4
II. Class I Supplies

As stated above, troops on Bataan were operating on half rations and had been reduced in combat efficiency on this account. As subsistence supplies decreased and notice was received from Corregidor that no additional subsistence supplies were available to us from other services, further reductions were made periodically on order to prolong the period of defense (See Exhibit “A” attached for ration reductions). In order to increase our inadequate subsistence supplies, efforts were made with some success to bring in ship loads of rice and other foodstuffs from the Southern islands of the Philippine Group through the ever-tightening Japanese blockade. The “[Illegible]” made several such trips before it was reported as captured - about March 15th

[Page 43]
5.
Also, several rice mills were put up and operated on Bataan to utilize the palay on hand. This palay was exhausted prior to March 20th. To add to the meat component, there were 2500-3000 carabao slaughtered on Bataan between Jan 6th and April 8th. Toward the latter part of this period and after forage for animals was exhausted, the horses of the 26th Cavalry (about 250 of them) and about 48 pack mules were slaughtered for food on a priority basis. About 500-600 of the slaughtered carabao were sent to Corregidor for storage in the cold-storage plant and later returned to Bataan for issue to troops. Rice being the chief component of food, all other supplies which were inadequate were rationed to last for the period that rice could

[Page 44]
6.
be made to last. About March 20th it was seen that supplies could be made to hold out until April 12th, and reports to headquarters of [illegible] were made to this effect. In addition to this [illegible] mentioned above to increase rations on hand, efforts were being made for several days prior to surrender to salvage a large amount of flour reported sunk on a ship at [illegible]. The Regular Army units brought with them into Bataan, extra quantities of foodstuff from Ft. McKinley and Ft. Statensberg. These were taken up and redistributed.

Class II Supplies Organization and Individual equipment -

Many units of the Philippine Army had reached

[Page 45]
7.
Bataan with an inadequate supply of organization and individual equipment. These troops had not received proper training in property responsibility and the importance of supplies. Much of their property was abandoned during their withdrawal to Bataan. Many of these troops in combat positions had only the scanty clothing worn by them during withdrawal. A large percentage of them had neither raincoats, blankets, nor shelter [illegible] for ordinary comfort. Small arms, including automatic weapons, were abandoned by them and new supplies were called for to make up deficiencies. Salvage detachments were organized and some clothing and equipment were made available for reissue by this means. No additional [illegible] in any appre-

[Page 46]
8.
ciable amounts were available. For status of other items of organization equipment, see appropriate heading below. Regular Army units were very well equipped with Class II supplies.

Transportation: The Motor Transport Service as such was organized about March 21, 1942, at the time of designation and organization of the Luzon Force. Prior to this time, Regular Army units, in general, were well equipped with transportation while Philippine Army units had only improvised and inadequate means of transportation composed of commandeered commercial vehicles. After (about) March 21st, a limited number of vehicles were assigned to all units which were entitled to them by basic allowances and the remaining vehicles were

[Page 47]
9.
organized into a Four Regiment Motor Transport Service. Companies “A” and “B” of the 12th Q.M. Regiment (P.S.) formed the nucleus of the 1st Regiment, M.T.S. The 2nd Regiment was formed from the Air Corps Q.M. units as a nucleus. One Q.M. company of Air Corps was used in the 4th M.T. Regt. All other M.T. units were made of of commercial vehicles operated by civilian drivers. These civilian drivers gave satisfactory service. The M.T.S. had a total of about 1200 vehicles of which about 200 were military vehicles and the remainder of commercial types.

Spare parts for motor vehicles were adequate for the number of vehicles which were able to operate on the reduced gasoline allowances.

Motor greases were about exhausted during this period

[Page 48]
10.
Transportation (cont’d).

Distilled water for use in motor batteries, having been exhausted prior to March 21st, the Chemical Warfare Service came to our aid and supplied the water by aid of some of its chemicals.

In general, although motor transportation was rapidly deteriorating for lack of lubrication of proper kind, this service was ahead of the motor fuel supply in meeting transportation requirements.

Many motor vehicles, including commercial motor busses were destroyed immediately prior to the surrender.

Class III. Supplies Gasoline and Lubricating Oils

As stated above, supplies which were inadequate were issued on a control basis and in such a way

[Page 49]
11.
as to last as long as subsistence supplies could be made to last. Gasoline issues were accordingly reduced from daily issues of about 8000 galons [sic] per day to about 3000 galons [sic] per day during this period. This reduced fuel greatly restricted necessary operation of motor vehicles and heavy construction (road) machinery. Gasoline was not available for use in ambulances to evacuate sick personnel from combat areas during this period. To better this condition, use was made of surplus aviation high octane gasoline to mix with [illegible] and low octane gasoline for use in combat tanks and in motor vehicles.

Lubricating oils both in quantity and appropriate grades were inadequate. It was not [illegible] to change motor oil in vehicles after long use on account of this scarsity [sic].

On date of surrender there remained about 11,000 galons [sic] of motor fuels, and very little lubricating oils of useable grades.

[Page 50]
12.
Class IV Supplies: Special Equipment

a. Engineer supplies. The engineers were very well equipped and functioned well in road construction, trail construction, construction of airfields, docks, operation of a sawmill, etc. The most serious shortage in this service was equipment needed by combat troops for field fortifications. Barbed wire, sand bags and constructing tools were inadequate. Shortage in heavy machinery and in motor fuels and oils greatly handicapped operations of the engineers. Building materials for protection from rainy weather (shelter materials) were quite inadequate.

b. Ordnance supplies. (Report of the ordnance officer is not available at this time - not yet completed).

On account of the irresponsibility of the Philippine

[Page 51]
13.
Army, fire arms, including automatic weapons, were abandoned without reason. This caused a shortage of automatic weapons in some organizations.

Class V. Supplies Ammunition

At date of surrender, small arms and artillery ammunition for an additional thirty days was available - at prior rate of consumption.

Destruction of supplies. In compliance with orders, supplies, except subsistence and certain motor vehicles, were destroyed just prior to surrender.

End.

Roy C. Hilton
Col. G.S.C. (Inf.),
G-4, Luzon Force

[Page 52]
[See map on original document.]

[Page 53]
32
Travel.

Grand Canyon, Ariz., & Yellow Stone Park, Wyoming.

Information re- Grand Canyon from Col. P.T. Fry who was there in Oct. 1941.
Information re- Yellowstone Nat’l. Park from Col. M.V. Fortier - C.O. cccamp there, 1941.

Grand Canyon: 1 Get there early morning for best chance on cabin accommodation. 2 Get cabin from concessionaire - about $5.00-$7.00 per day w/o kitchens, but includes linens & maid service. 3 Visit, by burrough, Phantom Ranch in canyon - stop one night in cabins here. 4 Use own car w/o guides to drive about 30 miles both directions along rim of canyon - for scenery. Stop at all look-outs and use gov’t. telescopes. 5 Visit Painted Desert (marvelous), and Petrified Forest (Fair). 6 Spend 3 days at canyon and 1 day at Painted Desert, allow about 7 hrs. To get to Flagstaff. 8 Write Phil. Fry for itinery [sic] & company of his family on tour: 228 - 15th St., N.E., Atlanta, Ga.

(over)

[See drawing on original document.]

[Page 54]
33
Travel. (Cont’d).

Yellowstone National Park. (see chart on previous page)

Approaching from Grand Canyon via Salt Lake City & Pocatello, Idaho. At Pocatello use cabins on N. side of city - fish hatchery and good fish here. 5-6 hrs. to Yellowstone Pk. from here. At S.L. City use tourist cabins in N. side of city on L. side of St. - big plant on opposite side of street. See [illegible] Salt Lake.

Enter pk. thru west entrance. Four (4) main things to see in park:

1 Mammoth Cave: North from Morris. En route, see obsidian (glass) mountains. See geysers - sulphur springs en route. Spend one (1) day here. Cabins w/ or w/o kitchens @ $4.00 & up for 4 persons. Cafeteria (ex.) here - hotels $12.00 per person. Park supt. (Mr. Rogers lives at Mammoth Cave. From Mammoth go to canyon & look for buffalo herd. Drive N. to N. entrance & return to see antelope herd. Eat at Gardner. Go East to Cooke & return - for scenery.

(2) Canyon: Stop here at Tourist Camp: spend 1-2 days here (1 or 2): see Yellowstone Falls. See bears feeding here, about 5:00 P.M. - Don’t feed bears nor carry food on person near them. From canyon go to lake.

(3) Lake: Cabins here. Make fishing trip here for 5 trout filleted & cooked for your meal - total cost each: $3.00 - everything furnished. Stop at Thumb for springs & geysers. Next go to Old Faithful.

(over)

[Page 55]
34.
Travel, (cont’d.).

(4) Old Faithful: go via Thumb & Thumb Junction. Stop one day & night here (at Old Faithful). Forresters give free lectures & pictures of park here. Cafeteria (ex) & cabins here. Go N. from O.F. & return - for scenery (geysers). South entrance out leads to Teton Mountain & Jackson Hole (famous for hunting country. Look for herds of deer and bull moose.

Notes: 1- Guns not permitted in park unless sealed.
2- Nat’l. Park service issues literature at entrances.
3- Crater of moon & Sun Valley - good trip from Pocatello.
4. Carlsbad Caverns - 80 mi. N.W. of El Paso, Tex. - excellent.
5. Investigate fee entrance to park for Army officers. Otherwise entrance is $0.50 each.
6. In winter from 10-15000 elk are fed in park (herds of elk).
7. Exit from park via East entrance leads by Cody (home & museum of Buffalo Bill.

(see next sheet)

[Page 56]
44.
2/27/42.

News at Karenko

“Nippon Times” (Japan Times Advitiser [sic] - Prior to 1943), Tokyo; “Mainicki” - Osaka - & occasionally from Nipponese officers - one to three wks. late - starting about 9/15/42.

Nipponese naval victories in Dutch Harbor (Aleutians) & her victories in Solomon Islands from July - Jan. 43. Amer. naval vessels sunk & damaged.

German successes at Stalingrad & Caucasus. Russian counter-attacks Stalingrad - Caucasus & on E. front from Nov. 15, ‘42 - Feb. 25, ‘43. Russians recaptured Stalingrad - Rostov & K. Karkov (Feb. ‘43).

Nipponese withdrew from Guadalcanal & Duna, N. Zealand (Jan. ‘43)

Amers. Landed in N. Africa & started toward Algeria (Nov. 7, ‘42): Germans withdrew into Algeria (Nov-Dec. ‘42).

Roosevelt’s & Churchill’s visit to Turkey, N. Africa & Egypt (Jan-Feb. ‘43); Roosevelt’s speeches to Congress (1943);

Gen. Temeshenko’s visit to U.S. (2/27/43);

3/3/43. Goebbels speech of 2/18 - peace feeler - admitting German defeats & Bolshevik danger.

4/7/43 (4/7/43) No newspapers nor outside news since paper dated 3/10/43.

4/20/43. Newspapers to 3/26 - arrived on 4/10/43. 4/20/43. No outside news since papers of 3/26. German drive & capture of Karkhov (Russia) shown. German successes vs. Amer. & British in Tunisia related Nip air successes in Solomons & Aleutian first naval battle (Nip. success) stated. [Illegible] vs Russia & Amer. & Amer. mission sent to Moscow. Eden to Wash. D.C. for conciliation of Soviet & U.S. breach?

5/1/43 - No outside news nor papers since 4/7/43. Rumor that Romell is hemmed in in Tunisia. 5/3/43. Papers arrived to incl. 4/23 - news re Romell hemmed in in N.E. Tunisia; re 800 allied transports in Mediterranean; re German moving troops to Bulgaria; re-Turkish & Russian situations. Looks favorable to anti-axis forces.

[Page 57]
45
News at Karenko (cont’d)

May 11, 1943. Nip.officer “Baggy Pants” says Tunis & [illegible] have been taken by the allies. Also that Mussolini had words with Hitler for not reinforcing N. Africa.

News at Camp Shira Kawa (White River).

7/10/43. Nip. off. (“Baggy Pants”) reports European situation is bad for axis & good for anti-axis - including revolts in Germany. Also that another sea battle is going on in Solomon Islands. (Last news paper received about 10 days ago - dated June 18th).

8/8/43. Last news paper received was dated July 5, 1943.

8/8/43. An unconfirmed report, about 8/3/43, was to effect that Mussolini has fled from Italy and that King Emanuelli [sic] is in control.

10/10/43. Last paper received about Sept. 22nd - dated to Aug. 20th.

11/8/43. Still no later papers issued - Rumor a few days ago that Mussolini is back in power & that the king and Badoglio have fled; that allies hold Italy south of Naples; that Turkey is in war on side of allies and have connected with Russians west of the Black Sea.

11/20/43 - Newspapers received to those dated Oct. 10, 1943. News re-Italy out of war - rescue of Mussolini, and landing & attack in Italy as far as Rome. Danish marshall law (Denmark).

12/22/43 - The Nippon Times (N. papers) to include those dated Oct. 31st issued today.

2/29/44 - Last news paper (and news) received was papers dated Nov. 28th (93 days)

4/16/44 - Papers issued to incl Feb. 25; 5/14/44 - Papers rec’d to incl Mar. 18th

5/17/44 - Papers rec’d to incl Apr. 6th; 6/1/44 Papers to incl Apr. 23rd rec’d.

7/26/44 - Last papers received were dated Apr. 23rd. Later ones arrived and destroyed.

8/14/44 - officially notified no more newspapers to be given to P.O.W.’s

[Page 58]
49
[See chart on original document.]

[Page 59]
53
Nipponese Topics.

I. Military training & customs: saluting; uniforms; Bushida; disciplinary measures; scarcity of officers; relation of officers & enlisted; insignia; commands; courtesy & customs; organization; efficiency; weapons; shoes; swords for officers; propaganda. Bushida, ways of a warrior, code of soldier - death rather than surrender.

II. Language: Chinese (+ Kona to express tense).

III. Country: Karenko (Taiwan (Formoso)). Lat. of Cuba; climate; products; scenery; occupations; industries; transportation;
Shira Kawa - vegetables & fruits; rainy climate; earthquakes each 2-3 wks.

IV. People: Japanese; Chinese; Formosans (tatooing [sic]); aborigenese [sic]. Character & customs - dress.
Clogs; scanty & slouchy clothing:

V. Treatment of Prisoners of War: original treatment by captors (Nip. officers - enlisted) treatment at Camp O’Donnell; at Tarlac; at Karenko (period of rgn tr’or); living conditions; space; room furnishings (bedding, benches, dishes, light, reading matter, writing materials); clothing; food; soap; medical attention; work and recreation; saluting required; benjo guard; goat guard; turning in shoes; curfew; health; periodic weighing (scales & records); paying; monthly allowance of pay (25-40¥); cost of monthly rations (¥16.43). Pledge of non-escape required; written wills required; disposition of medical & Red Cross personnel; armed guards; brick wall enclosure; laundry; household service; congestion.
Recognition of rank among P.W. Withholding R/C supplies. Taking up matches, knives, straight-razors.

VI. Products & Economy: Crops - fruits - vegetables - livestock; our stock farm; tools for work (accounting for & washing after work) & types & quality - repair; writing paper; pencils; razors; shaving brushes; checking property; making fly swatters; repairing clothing; repairing shoes; care of metals; kitchen & cooking; issue & securing daily rations. Bamboo beds w/o mattresses 14 days at new camp, S.W. Taiwan. Saving strings from mattresses. Scissors, pocket knives, pins, toothpicks, stationery.

[Written on side of page 59]
VII. Food - rice & vegs. Rice cookies & pastry.

[Page 60]
54
Speech delivered in Japanese by Capt. Imamura, Comdt.

Karenko P.O.W. Camp #4, on Aug 17, 1942, the day of our arrival from Tarlac, P.I.

“Instructions to the Prisoners of War.”

“I am head of this prisoners camp. I wish to instruct you, as follows: you have shown your great loyalty and patriotism to your fatherland, but your strength was exhausted or you were wounded in the battlefield and, unfortunately, you were captured, for which I express deep sympathy as a soldier of the Nipponese Army.

Previous to the present war of Greater East Asia, Nippon ardently desired peace over the Pacific and made her best efforts to settle the problems peacefully. In spite of such diligence efforts of Nippon, the United States and Britain had constantly challenged Nippon and drove her to the most difficult position to keep her prestige and to solve the question of life or death. Nippon, therefore, has taken up arms with

[Page 61]
56
heroic determination for the sake of her self defense and the permanent peace of the world. Nippon indeed stood up at the risk of her existence, together with her history for the last 3000 years. One hundred millions of the people have united themselves firmly under the august virtues of His Majesty, The Emperor, and have desperate determination to strike down our enemies, the United States and Great Britain which have been molesting Great East Asia. Heaven always sides with justice. Since the outbreak of the war, Nippon gas annihilated the Pacific fleets of the United States, the Britain and Australia the past six months and has captured all the Dutch East India, Hong Kong, Malay, Singapore, etc., and now the occupation of Australia is imminent.

Such brilliant results of war has never been recorded in the history of the wars in the world. Now not only on the Pacific but on the Indian Ocean not a single warship either of

[Page 62]
58
the United States or of the Britain in seen. Their aerial forces, two, are about entirely annihilated, and now not an airplane of them is seen flying over our domain.

Vast natural resources of the South Sea Islands, the great treasure house of the world, are now all in our hands, consequently our military power is being strengthened all the more.

On the other hand, such countries as the Republic of China, French-Indo China, Thai and Burma, thoroughly understand the true intentions of Nippon is now cooperate with her to make a rapid progress in the establishment of the new order in the Greater East Asia. This, of course, owes to the august virtues of His Majesty, The Emper of Japan Nippon, who divinely judges everything by humanity and justice. It is entirely the gracious gift of His Majesty, The Emperor, that you, having crossed over the death line, being assured of the safety of your life, can

[Page 63]
60
enjoy peaceful living, you must therefore: be hastily grateful to His Grace.

You are required to pay sincere attention to the significance of the war with your genuine honest and sacred heart. I hope that you will enjoy the peaceful life in this camp and return to your dear families after the restoration of peace which I hope will not be very long. The following are general principles that I require you to seriously observe:

1 - Anyone who does not observe the Nippon military discipline shall be severely punished, and the life of such prisoners shall not be always assured.

2 - To be loathe to labor or to express dissatisfaction for food, clothing and habitation is prohibited.

Now Nippon, with the solid unity of the people of one hundred millions, is fighting against the United States and the Britain

[Page 64]
62.
With the firm conviction of victory. Here is no one person living idle in the country. Everyone of the nation is most patriotic and ready to sacrifice himself for the sake of His Majesty, The Emperor. Everyone of the country is willing to endure all sorts of hardships and fighting for the final victory of the war. You must understand, therefore, that it is nothing but natural that you are not allowed to lead an idle life.

3 - The American and the English are not allowed to have the haughty attitude over the peoples of Asia or to look them down, which have been their common sense for a long time. If there is any such attitude at all on your part, you shall be severely punished.

4. The language spoken daily to you is the Nippon language. English is used only when it is necessary. You must, therefore, make diligent effort to understand Nipponese for your daily use.

[Page 65]
64
5 - If you obey the orders, rules and regulations in this camp and put them faithfully into practice, you shall be given just protection and be able to return to your fatherland when peace is restored.

x x x x x

Second speech by same officer as above (see, also the 3rd speech by this officer dated Aug. 16, 1943, in diary) (2nd speech June 8, 1943.)

“I am your camp commander for the second time. We are fortunate in that although communications are very bad this camp is located in a province said to be very fertile and rich. The camp is not completed and I ask you to cooperate with me and make this a utopia of prison camps. I am going to live with you and work with you”

x x x

[Page 66]
66
Etiquette for the Nipponese POW’s (Outline).

10/1/43. The Privileged Camp - General officers & colonels (Amer.; Br; Dutch; [illegible])

1. The situation: (a) surrender; stripping of equipment, clothing, jewelry, etc.
(b) Regulations: compound; escaping; oath not to escape; armed guards. Saluting
(c) Hours for work; recreation; park (Shira Kawa); tools;
(d) Type of labor; tools; hours; work-rice.
(e) Wills for property;
(f) living quarters; equipment; space;
(g) Food; water; P-X purchases
(h) Money: pay; P.O.W. canteen checks (¥50.00) (i) Clothing; replacement; repair; laundering
(j) Daily life - “Benjo” guard and Benjo record. - organization.
(k) The farm: The stock farm (31.00 Yen each - total 7000.00¥)
(l) Dress - mail - letters & msgs. home -
(m) Etiquette: Dress: food serving; water serving; table manners; dishes - arguments; saluting Nipponese
Bopping of P.O.W.’s

[Page 67]
Rc’d at S.W. Taiwan on Aug. 19, 1944. R.C.H.

Taiwan

To: Colonel Roy C. Hilton

Message: All well status same allotment being received love and hopes wife Ruth Hilton

Citation

Hilton, Roy C., 1892-1950, “Journal of Roy C. Hilton, Journal Entries, Charts and Other Thoughts, 1941-1944,” The Citadel Archives Digital Collections, accessed July 22, 2024, https://citadeldigitalarchives.omeka.net/items/show/837.