Minutes of the Board of Visitors of The Citadel, 1853


Minutes of the Board of Visitors of The Citadel, 1853


Official minutes of the governing body of The Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina.




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The Citadel Board of Visitor Meeting Minutes










Charleston (S.C.)

Date Valid


17 pages ; 32 cm


[Page 1]
August 11 1853

Col. Isaac D. Wilson (Darlington) was appointed (by His Excellency Governor J. L. Manning), one of the Board of Visitors, viz Hanna deceased.

[Page 2]
Citadel Academy, Charleston
Nov. 21. 1853

The Board met this day to be present at the annual examination of the Cadets of this institution


Genl. James Jones – Chairman
Genl. D. F. Jamison
Genl. D. Wallace
Genl. John H. Means
Col. Wilson

The examination continued until Thursday evening, when the Board adjourned to meet at the

Arsenal Academy Nov. 29 1853


Genl. Ja. Jones – Chairman
His Excellency Gov. Manning
Genl. D. F. Jamison
Genl. D. Wallace
Genl. John H. Means
Col. Wilson
Adjt. Genl. Cantey

when the annual examination commenced and closed on the afternoon of the 30th inst.

Board adjourned to meet on tomorrow at the Executive Office to examine the Bursars accounts of the Military Academies: & afterward to meet on Friday 2nd Dec. to hold their annual meeting.

[Page 3]
State Military Academies

List of distinguished Cadets reported at the Annual Examinations Nov 1853

Names – District – Academy – Studies, etc. in which each Cadet particularly excels

“Second Class”
1 J. Hallonquist – Barnwell – Citadel – Belles Lettres, Nat. Phil., Drawing, Conduct
2 T. Lee – Kershaw – Citadel – Nat Phil., Drawing, Conduct
“Third Class”
1 J. D. Wylie – Lancaster – Citadel – Mathematics, French, Conduct
2 W. D. DuBose – Fairfield – Citadel – Mathematics, Belles Lettres, French
"Fourth Class”
1 B. Sloan – Anderson – Citadel – Mathematics, Belles Lettres
2 J. F. Lanneau – Charleston – Citadel – Mathematics, Belles Lettres, French
1 H. S. Thompson – Greenville – Arsenal – Mathematics, Belles Lettres, French, Conduct
2 J. L. Coker – Darlington – Arsenal – Mathematics, French

James Jones
Chairman B of V

[Page 4]
Executive Office – Columbia
Dec. 2 1853

At the annual meeting of the Board of Visitors consisting of

Genl. James Jones, Chairman
His Excellency Governor J. L. Manning
Genl. D. F. Jamison
Genl. Daniel Wallace
Genl. John H. Means
Col. Isaac D. Wilson
Adj. Genl. Cantey

The Report of the Superintendent of the Arsenal Academy was taken up, and read, when

It was Resolved that the following Cadets be transferred from the Arsenal Academy to the Citadel Academy: viz

1 Burt – B
2 Capers – B
3 Coker – P
4 Coleman – P
5 Croft – P
6 Egleston – P
7 Erwin – P
8 Finch – B
9 Garmany – B
10 Holmes – P
11 Houser – P
12 King – P
13 Law – P
14 McAllister – B
15 McKeller – P
16 Manget – B
17 Muller – B
18 Nance – P
19 Palmer – P
20 Randell – P
21 Roberts – P
22 Ross – P
23 Sims – P
24 Steedman – P
25 Strait – B
26 Thompson – B
27 Walpole – P
28 Williams – P
29 Willingham – P
30 Wilson – B
31 Bowles – B
32 Johnson – B

That Cadets Dickinson & Rowe be retained in 4th Class another year.

That Brabham, Bell, Taylor & Calhoun be discharged - That the suspension of Cadets McQueen, Whitehead & Boatwright be confirmed - & that they be expelled – that Cadet Backstrom be re-instated - & that Cadet Walker be honorably discharged (absent on sick furlough).

[Page 5]
Resolved that the salaries of Professors White & Thomas be increased to $1200 each.

Resolved that (pay) Cadet Garmany be transferred to the beneficiary list.

Resolved that the following named persons be appointed beneficiary pupils to the Arsenal Academy for the year 1854

1 Robert E. Sweat – Beaufort
2 W. J. Gooding – Beaufort
3 Thos. N. Drose – Charleston
4 Robt. M. Anderson – Charleston
5 W. W. Whitney – Charleston
6 Thos. H. Mangum – Chesterfield
7 J. L. Folk – Colleton
8 W. D. Allen – Colleton
9 S. D. Robertson – Fairfield
10 B. Farr – Greenville
11 H. D’Oyley – Greenville
12 W. P. Nixon – Horry
13 J. E. Black – Laurens
14 R. H. Waldrop – Laurens
15 E. Bailey – Marion
16 John F. Baxter – Orangeburg
17 W. H. Zeigler – Orangeburg
18 F. N. Garvin – Pickens
19 J. J. Exum – Sumter
20 H. W. D. Garden – Sumter
21 W. J. B. Loyd – Sumter
22 W. C. Byers – Union
23 Jas. Hart – Union
24 R. T. Harper – York
25 W. G. Russell – York
26 J. W. Phillips – Charleston
27 Thos. H. Dalyrmple – Darlington
S. W. DuBose – Fairfield

[Page 6]
And that the following named persons be appointed pay pupils at the Arsenal Academy for the year 1854

1 H. D. Moore – Abbeville
2 R. Robinson – Abbeville
3 E. Capers – Anderson
4 Jos. Erwin – Barnwell
5 Wm. McCreary – Barnwell
6 E. R. Hayes – Barnwell
7 H. P. D. Hay – Barnwell
8 John Whetstone – Barnwell
9 Wm. Whetstone – Barnwell
10 E. C. Chaplin – Beaufort
11 G. C. Mackay – Beaufort
12 S. F. Ellis – Beaufort
13 W. M. Tennent – Charleston
14 W. J. Davis 3rd Class Citadel – Charleston
15 T. W. Councell – Charleston
16 L. S. Benson – Charleston
17 W. A. McDowell – Charleston
18 J. E. Magwood – Charleston
19 P. K. McKelvey – Charleston
20 J. R. Heriot – Charleston
21 Robert Campbell – Charleston
22 P. Chavez – Charleston
23 B. F. Backstrom – Chester
24 Robt. Evans – Chesterfield
25 R. Campbell – same as No. 21
26 R. J. Muirhead – Colleton
27 M. O. Raysor – Colleton
28 W. Z. Bedon – Colleton
29 E. C. Ellis – Colleton
30 W. E. Charles – Darlington
31 Thos. H. Law – Darlington
32 W. T. Norwood – Darlington
33 J. W. Norwood – Darlington
34 S. W. DuBose – Darlington
35 H. A. Gaillard – Fairfield
36 W. Strother – Fairfield
37 R. K. Thomas – Fairfield
38 H. A. Cauble – Greenville
39 J. N. Southern – Greenville
40 Theo. Hemmingway – Georgetown
41 Chas. Bonney – Kershaw
42 John McCaw – Kershaw
43 B. Kennedy – Kershaw
44 G. F. Robenson – Kershaw
45 J. D. Steel – Lancaster
46 D. F. Gary – Laurens
47 J. E. Wolfe – Lexington
48 E. W. Steedman – Lexington
49 J. L. Steedman – Lexington
50 Thos. Dudley – Marlboro
51 A. B. Henegan – Marion
52 E. B. Ellerbe – Marion
53 D. Rutherford – Newberry
54 W. Darby – Orangeburg
55 J. A. Scott – Richland
56 W. H. Walker – Spartanburg
57 D. S. P. DuBose – Sumter
58 J. M. James – Sumter
59 J. L. Jeter – Union
60 J. P. Jeter – Union
61 W. T. Jeter – Union
62 Ja. A. Coward – Williamsburg
63 W. J. M. Lee – Williamsburg
64 L. M. Austin – Greenville

Citadel Academy 3rd Class
G. H. [Illegible] – P Anderson
& W. J. Davis – No. 14 above P

Resolved, DuBose No. 34 on paying for 2 quarters, be transferred to beneficiary list.

[Page 7]
The Report of the Superintendent of the Citadel Academy was taken up & read, when

It was resolved That Cadets Erwin & Rugg (having been suspended) be expelled.

That Cadets Baxter, Boatwright, Gadsden & Heape be honorably discharged.

That Cadets Culpepper & Munnerlyn be examined; & if not prepared to go on with 2nd class, go on with a lower class.

That Cadet Gibbes be retained in 2nd class.

That Cadets Phinney, Rugg, & Palmer be discharged.

That Cadets Trotti, Evans & Jones be retained in their present class.

That Cadet Roach be honorably discharged and that Cadets Dennis, Hasell & J. White be discharged for deficiency.

Resolved, that leave of absence be granted to Mr. J. L. Gregorie, Bursar, for three weeks in the present month.

Resolved that in the course of instruction in National Hon. Law, the Constitution of the U. S. and S. C. – and Calhoun’s Disquisition on Government be substituted for story.

Resolved that Dr. Hume report to the Chairman of the Board, the title of the work which he wishes to substitute for “Birds Elements”

[Page 8]
Resolved that the first three lines of the 29th par. of the reg. be struck out – and the following be substituted therefore viz.

“The issue to each Cadet shall not exceed for any one year the following articles of clothing” viz &:

and after “2 pairs of Berlin gloves,” insert “1 pr suspenders” – which the Board insist shall be worn at all times.

Resolved that the 34 par of Reg shall be entirely struck out, and that the following shall be substituted –

"34 The Bursar shall keep open a clothing account with each Cadet and charge him with all articles of clothing issued to him at cost price – and no Cadet shall be permitted to exceed the amount of sixty dollars per annum.”

Resolved that the words “desiring it” be struck out of 51st par. of Reg. - & that the words “Superintendent” be substituted for the words “faculty” in 57th & 58th par. of Reg.

Resolved that the first six words of 61 par of the Reg be struck out; & that the words “The Board of Visitors” shall be substituted therefore – and that the words “in writing” shall be inserted after the word “thereof” in 2nd line of par. 84

[Page 9]
The following preamble & Resolutions were introduced by Col. Isaac D. Wilson – and unanimously adopted –

Since the last meeting of this Board, death has invaded our ranks, and removed from amongst us, a respected and honored member – General William J. Hanna.

Zealous and indefatigable in the discharge of his duties, he labored faithfully for the efficiency & usefulness of the institutions in part committed to his charge.

To the successful accomplishment of his efforts, he brought to the task, a mind matured by experience, and familiar with the practical duties of life: a character prudent and discreet: at the same time, distinguished for great firmness and resolution.

With these fortunate combinations, less could not have been expected than a successful result to all objects, to which his attention was directed. Called to participate in the organization of the Military Academies of the state, he was found a discreet advisor and prudent Counsellor; uniting in his character, those qualities of the head and heart, which mark the useful citizen, and enlightened public servant.

But he has been called from the field of his usefulness, leaving to us the example of a well directed life in the service of his fellow men; & the Board of Visitors, desirous of recording their appreciation of his character, unite in this testimonial.

Be it

[Page 10]
Resolved that we lament the removal, by death, of our late associate Genl. William J. Hanna, whose truthfulness of character endeared him to us, and whose faithful public conduct, commanded our respect and gratitude.


That this Board has lost an honored and efficient member; and the state a conscientious & faithful officer.


That we sincerely sympathize with the afflicted family of the deceased: & that a copy of this testimonial be transmitted to them.

The Board of Visitors adjourned on Friday afternoon Dec 2 1853 (sine die).

[Page 11]
Dec 3 1853

The following Report was made to The Honorable The General Assembly of South Carolina

The Board of Visitors of the State Military Academies, beg leave to submit to Your Honorable Body the following Report.

They have just concluded a very rigid examination of all the classes at the Citadel and Arsenal Academies; and they are gratified to be able to state, that at no period, since the establishment of these institutions, have the Cadets exhibited greater proficiency in their studies, or stricter attention to the duties required of them. Under the government of an able, active, and intelligent faculty, in both academies, all the regulations have been observed, and the strictest discipline enforced throughout the year.

The Board regret to state, that no class was presented to them for graduation this year. That circumstance was owing to an unhappy outbreak of the second class, which took place during the summer of 1852, which resulted in the suspension of the whole class: and as the question of their restoration, involved the future discipline and government of the Military Academies, the Board of Visitors did not hesitate to confirm the suspension imposed by the Superintendent. They hope that this act of firmness may

[Page 12]
may prevent the recurrence of any similar incident for the future.

Since the organization of the Military Academies in 1843, there have been appointed to the institution seven hundred and twenty five (725) pupils, of whom there remained in the Academies on the 1st Dec inst., ninety seven (97) Cadets and ninety (90) had graduated. For the disposition of the remainder, an exhibit showing the number appointed in each year, severally the number “who failed to report” or “who were rejected – for physical or mental deficiencies” – the number who have been “Honorably discharged” – “discharged for deficiencies in studies” & “discharged for misconduct” is herewith transmitted.

This exhibit shows, that of the number appointed to the institution, a large portion are discharged or dismissed before the termination of their enlistment. That is owing in a great measure to want of care on the part of parents, guardians, and commissioners of free schools, in selecting young men for the Academies, who, from previous imperfect instruction, improper moral training or natural incapacity, are either rejected on their presentment for admission, discharged after the end of their probationary term of four months, or they break down at some subsequent period of their four year course. Besides they are subjected to a rigid system of instruction, and a severe course of study which requires some talent and much diligence to withstand and complete, and they boy who cannot work, or who will not work, is discharged

[Page 13]
And his place given to another. But the difficulty of completing the course of instruction, and the large number of dismissals in this institution so far from being an argument against the system pursued there, are, in the opinion of the Board not the least cause of its excellence. It is impossible to educate everybody; and it seems to be better, by fixing a high standard of education, to train up those who are subjected to it, so as to enable them to accomplish the greater amount of good, than to educate a large number imperfectly: for if the standard is low, very many will fall short even of that mark; and the tendency of such a system will be to deteriorate, until it becomes worthless, and in the end contemptible.

At the annual meeting of the Board on the 2nd instant, eleven (11) Cadets were discharged, and ninety new appointments made. Sixty three (63) pay, and twenty seven (27) beneficiaries: so that on the first of January next, if all of these appointments report, and are received, there will be one hundred and seventy six (176) Cadets in the institution.

The Board make the following report of the receipts and expenditures, for the fiscal year, from October 1st 1852, to September 30th 1853. For a more specific account of which, they refer to the annual accounts of the Bursars of the two Academies, herewith transmitted, accompanied by the proper voucher.

[Page 14]
Balance on hand October 1st 1852 – 17.00
Received from the appropriations – 27600.00 Received from pay Cadets – 17534.71
Received from sale of clothing – 11.66
Received from sale of old iron – 21.08
Received from sale of coals to officers – 7.50
[Total] - $45191.95

Paid balance due 1st Oct. 1852 – 293.83
Paid salaries – 12291.89
Paid subsistence – 11288.51
Paid clothing – 8243.47
Paid washing – 1304.08
Paid hire of servants – 1449.04
Paid musicians – 343.84
Paid contingencies including fuel, lights, books, stationery, medicine, repairs, etc. – 6857.71
Paid permanent improvements – 1648.92
Paid [illegible] guard in Charleston – 1121.39 Leaving Bal unexpended – 625.27
[Total] - $45191.95

[Page 15]
The reports of the Arsenal Keepers at Charleston & Columbia respectively are herewith transmitted.

At the last session of the General Assembly, the usual annual appropriation “for repairing arms and arsenal purposes in Charleston and Columbia” was not made. It is necessary for the preservation of the large quantity of arms, belonging to the state, that armorers and laborers should be constantly employed in inspecting, repairing, cleaning, and oiling them: and it is submitted whether the amount necessary should not be continued as a separate appropriation, rather than abstract the sum from the academic fund of the Military Academies.

The Board of Visitors have not considered themselves authorized under the act of assembly converting the Arsenal and Citadel into Military schools to grant military commissions to the officers of the Academies. They have therefore done no more than confer a relative assimilated military rank amongst the professors, which has no authority out of the institution. This relative rank, without the sanction of the State, is insufficient to protect the officers and cadets, especially when encamped for military instruction, from the insults and disturbance of evil disposed and riotous persons not under their command. The Board therefore submit for your consideration, the propriety of authorizing the Governor to commission the officers of Institution in the Militia of the State: and of conferring upon them, the powers of protection enumerated in the act of Assembly in relation to the Encampment of Militia Officers.

Respectfully submitted
(signed) James Jones Chairman

[Page 16]
[See chart on original document]


Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina, “Minutes of the Board of Visitors of The Citadel, 1853,” The Citadel Archives Digital Collections, accessed June 21, 2024, https://citadeldigitalarchives.omeka.net/items/show/368.